Pure water has got a wide range of uses. Depending on the use of the water and the amount of water needed for a certain task, purification technology and systems are designed. Various tasks that need pure water all vary in the quality of water needed. To design a system for purification of water one must have a full understanding of what contaminates water. The main water contaminants are
1.0 Inorganic ions-they dissolve in water forming positive or negative ions
2.0 Organic ions-chemical contaminants that contain carbon and are majorly naturally occurring
3.0 Endotoxins- microorganisms that include algae, bacteria and viruses
4.0 Particles-small particles like sand and soil that are visible with naked eyes Designing a high purity water system. Pure water is attained via distillation or deionization. This way all the minerals and particles are removed. A proper water purification system contains
Makeup water purifier: This is where all the purification takes place using various technologies. Tap water is fed to the system and at different levels the degree of purity. Most organizations rank water according to its extent of purity as type I, type II and type III with type I being the purest.
Storage reservoir: From the makeup purifying system water is stored in the reservoir to cover for demand.
Distribution loop: A distribution pump ensures water is distributed appropriately along the pipes at the correct rates of flow and pressures.
Point of use delivery: This is the point where the water now gets to the user. Additional polishing here may be done like boiling to ensure ultra-pure water sample when need be.
How is pure water distributed efficiently?
To answer this question, consider the hindrances to the efficient distribution. A major one being bacteria along the distribution piping. Below are some of the ways that ensure the quality of water is not compromised during distribution.
Continuous recirculation: Still water provides a favorable environment for bacteria to form hence contamination. The distribution loop should be able to take the water in one continuous path to the point of use and back to the storage tank.
Minimized dead legs a dead leg is any section of the loop that has got no continuous water circulation. As mentioned above water should be in continuous circulation. To avoid dead legs, the design is in a 60 or a 20, use of special valves at each point of use, manufacturers are designing gooseneck faucets that allow water flow through the head of the faucet and the use of T diaphragms that allow flow through the main valve body
The turbulent flow: The loop should be designed to ensure the flow is turbulent. Reynolds number for purified water systems is used to determine whether the low is turbulent or streamlined. In the Reynolds number for purified water systems, any number that is below 2300 is considered free of turbulence. One of between 2300-4000 is a transitional flow while one that is above 4000 is considered turbulent.
A flow rate of between approximately 3-5 feet per second is the best design practice. one exceeding 5 fps lead to unnecessary pressure loss. Purified water is an important resource in a day to day life. Many mishaps can really occur when the water is not pure to the required degree. Coordination and performance of the purification system are highly regarded.